updated Feb. 4, 2000
Whether or not endorsements make any difference on Caucus Night is debatable, but they are important in the pre-primary period when developing campaigns strive to build credibility. Campaigns go to considerable effort to round up endorsements. The first targets are prominent party leaders including elected officials, former officials, erstwhile candidates, and party activists. In addition, campaigns seek support of community activists and business and civic leaders; Democratic candidates also woo labor support.
The timing and format of endorsement announcements can be significant. A mass endorsement, with elected officials lined up behind the candidate, can draw significant attention. Alternatively, rolling out a steady stream of endorsements over a period of time can bolster the impression of a growing campaign. Picking up a prominent supporter who had formerly been with another campaign is regarded as a coup, worthy of a press release or press conference.
Those that have endorsements trumpet them; those that don't argue that endorsements really don't matter and that anyhow they are pursuing a grassroots strategy. Texas Gov. George W. Bush, receiving the endorsements of a majority of Iowa's Republican state legislators on September 1, 1999, stated, "These legislators bring credibility, on-the-ground leadership and support to my campaign..." Almost by definition "establishment candidates" are able to rack up endorsements from large numbers of elected officials. For others in the field, even a few elected official endorsements can help with credibility.
An endorser may play an active role in the campaign, serving as a surrogate, appearing with the candidate, making calls and rallying up support, or he or she may do nothing more than allow his or her name to be listed on the campaign's leadership team or steering committee.
The process of building support and endorsements among specific groups, such as farmers or educators, is known as coalitions, and is an area of the campaign unto itself.
In sum, endorsements, like fundraising prowess and campaign organization, are an element that contributes to credibility. Ultimately, however, voters' decisions are based on their views of a candidate's experience, ideas and values.
|Key Endorsements by Candidate||updated Feb. 4, 2000.|
State Senator: Nancy Boettger of Harlan (41).
State Representatives: Dwayne Alons of Hull (5); Dan Boddicker of Tipton (39); David Lord of Perry (77).
More Iowa Steering Committee:
Pastor Olan Adams, Director, Iowa Chapter, American Association of Christian Schools. Davenport.
Ruth Beyer, President and Executive Director, Iowa Right to Life. Sully.
Paul Beyer, Buchanan County GOP Chair. Independence.
Mark Boddicker, Benton County GOP Chair. Walker.
Dave Boettger, Member, Iowa Corn Growers Board. Harlan.
Lori Bowman, Vice President, Quad City Right to Life and Director, Quad City Teens for Life. LeClaire.
Mike Clark, Member RPI Central Committee. Eldridge.
Scott Coltrain, Polk County GOP Chair; former vice chair of Keyes 2000. Des Moines.
Sandy DeJong, Treasurer, Iowa Right to Life. Sully.
Peggy Hermann, Former Executive Director, Iowa Christian Coalition. West Des Moines.
Pastor Larry Johnson, State Director, American Family Association. Cedar Rapids.
David Karwoski, Former Board Member, Christian Coalition, Member RPI Central Committee. Davenport.
Arie Olivier, Sioux County. Sioux Center.
Sherry Riley, Miss Iowa 1998. Clear Lake.
Steve Russell, Executive Director, Cedar Rapids Youth for Christ. Cedar Rapids.
Brian Schmidt, Clinton County GOP Chair. Delmar.
Lynn Schulte, Former State Rep. Mount Vernon.
Maxine Sieleman, Host of Breakfast at KWKY and former Director, CWA of Iowa. Des Moines.
DeAnne Sikes, State Director, Concerned Women for America. Altoona.
Pastor Richard Smith, Asst. Director, Iowa Chapter, American Association of Christian Schools. Tipton.
Deb Taylor, Past President of Iowa Right to Life. Davenport.
Tim and Sherry Vanderploeg, Former Iowa Family Policy Center board members. Runnells.
Karolyn Zbornik, former Keyes activist. Waterloo.
George W. Bush
U.S. Sen. Chuck Grassley.
U.S. Reps. Jim Leach (R-1st District), Jim Nussle (R-2nd District), Greg Ganske (R-4th District), Tom Latham (R-5th District).
Jeff Angelo of Creston (44)
Richard F. Drake of Muscatine (24)
E. Thurman Gaskill of Corwith (8)
H. Kay Hedge of Fremont (48)
Stewart E. Iverson of Dows (9)
JoAnn Johnson of Adel (39)
Mary E. Kramer of West Des Moines (37)
Jeff Lamberti of Ankeny (33)
O. Gene Maddox of Clive (38)
Derryl McLaren of Farragut (43)
Donald B. Redfern of Cedar Falls (12)
Jack Rife of Moscow (20)
Sheldon Rittmer of De Witt (19)
Mike Sexton of Rockwell City (7)
Maggie Tinsman of Davenport (21)
Lyle Zieman of Postville (16)
Donna Barry of Dunlap (82)
Clel Baudler of Greenfield (78)
Gary Blodgett of Clear Lake (19)
Carmine Boal of Ankeny (65)
Barry Brauns of Conesville (47)
Cecil Dolecheck of Mount Ayr (88)
Russell Eddie of Storm Lake (10)
Chuck Gipp of Decorah (31)
Betty Grundberg of Des Moines (73)
James Hahn of Muscatine (48)
Lance Horbach of Tama (60)
Dan Huseman of Aurelia (9)
Libby Jacobs of West Des Moines (74)
Willard Jenkins of Waterloo (24)
David Johnson of Ocheyedan (6)
Steve Kettering of Lake View (11)
Ralph Klemme of Le Mars (4)
of Cedar Rapids (55)
Mona Martin of Davenport (43)
Janet Metcalf of Des Moines (75)
David Millage of Bettendorf (41) -fmrly Alexander
Beverly Nelson-Forbes of Marshalltown (64)
Scott Raecker of Urbandale (76)
Christopher Rants of Sioux City (3)
Henry Rayhons of Garner (16)
House Speaker Brent Siegrist of Council Bluffs (84) -fmrly Alexander
Steve Sukup of Dougherty (18)
Russell Teig of Jewell (17)
Rosemary Thomson of Marion (51)
Phil Tyrrell of North English (59)
Jim Van Engelenhoven of Leighton (95)
Dick Weidman of Griswold (86)
Jerry Welter of Monticello (56) -fmrly Alexander
Larry McKibben of Marshalltown (32)
Merlin Bartz of Grafton (10)
Jerry Behn of Boone (40)
Clyde Bradley of Camanche (37) -fmrly Alexander
Bob Brunkhorst of Waverly (22)
Bill Dix of Shell Rock (21)
John Sunderbruch of Davenport (44)
James Van Fossen of Davenport (42) -fmrly Bush switched 11/99
Others on Forbes' Iowa Executive Campaign Committee:
Chair Gary Kirke of Des Moines, businessman.
John Gilliland, 1998 Republican nominee for Secretary of State.
Harlan "Bud" Hockenberg of Des Moines, attorney.
Leon Mosley of Waterloo, member of the Republican State Central Committee.
Sharon Rexroth, member of the Republican State Central Committee.
Bill Vernon of Cedar Rapids, attorney and member of the Republican State Central Committee.
Before she withdrew Dole had garnered endorsements of:
State Senator: Mary Lundby of Marion (26);
State Representative: Effie Lee Boggess of Clarinda (87).
Iowa Executive Committee:
Paul Pate, former Secretary of State, of Cedar Rapids and April McDermott, eighth grade math teacher, of Ankeny.
Steve Roberts, Republican National Committeeman, of Des Moines and Wiley Mayne, former congressman, of Sioux City.
Lundby and Boggess
Dawn Roberts of Des Moines, past president of the Iowa Federation of Republican Women.
Mike Mahaffey of Montezuma, former Republican state chairman.
Ray Dearin of Ames, member of the Republican State Central Committee.
Lisa Smith of Ottumwa,
member of the Republican State Central Committee.
switched to Bauer
Margaret McDonald of Iowa City, former co-chairman of the Republican Party of Iowa.
Duane Acker of Atlantic, businessman.
Clark Kelly of Charles City, member of the Iowa Board of Regents.
Major General Evan "Curly" Hultman of Waterloo, former Iowa Attorney General.
Before he withdrew Quayle had garnered endorsements of:
Steve King of Kiron (6), chair
Kitty Rehberg of Rowley (14) chair
Kenneth Veenstra of Orange City (3) co-chair
Mark Doll of Council Bluffs.
Wayne Engle of Marion.
Steve Salem of Sioux City.
Gary Michaelsen of Mason City.
Thomas D. Ross of Des Moines.
John Hulsizer of Dubuque.
Kathleen Hoffman of Sioux City.
Brad Peyton of Urbandale.
former Iowa House Speaker Harold Van Maanen of Pella.
former State Rep. Richard Vande Hoef of Harris.
Before he withdrew (8/16/99) Alexander had garnered the endorsements of:
Clyde Bradley (37)
Ron Corbett (52)
David Millage (41)
Iowa House Speaker Brent Siegrist (84)
Jerry Welter (56)
Elected Officials: State Rep. Michael Cormack of Fort Dodge (13).
Joe Bolkcom of Iowa City (23)
Robert E. Dvorsky of Coralville (25)
Steven D. Hansen of Sioux City (1)
John Kibbie of Emmetsburg (4) initially backed Gore.
Polly Bukta of Clinton (38)
Jim Drees of Manning (80) initially backed Gore.
Steve Falck of Stanley (28)
Ed Fallon of Des Moines (70)
Marcella Frevert of Emmetsburg (8)
Jack Holveck of Des Moines (72)
Geri Huser of Altoona (66)
Pam Jochum of Dubuque (35)
Michael O'Brien of Boone (79)
Robert Osterhaus of Maquoketa (34)
Dennis Parmenter of Cambridge (62)
Rebecca Reynolds of Bonaparte (94)
Paul Scherrman of Farley (33)
Des Moines Register ...Des Moines (Polk County) --pd. circ. daily 158,537, Sun. 254,820--1/23/00
The Hawk Eye ...Burlington (Des Moines County) --pd. circ. daily 19,487, Sun. 21,364--1/15/00
International Brotherhood of Painters and Allied Trades Local #246
United Electrical Radio Machine Workers Local #893 (1/17/00)
Iowa Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers (1/21/00)
U.S. Sen. Tom Harkin, U.S. Rep. Leonard Boswell (D-3rd District).
Secretary of State Chet Culver (D), Treasurer Michael Fitzgerald (D), Secretary of Agriculture Patty Judge (D), Attorney General Tom Miller (D).
Dennis H. Black of Grinnell (29)
Mike W. Connolly of Dubuque (18)
Dick L. Dearden (35)
Patrick J. Deluhery of Davenport (22)
Bill Fink of Carlisle (45)
Wayne Ford of Des Moines (71)
Tom Flynn of Epworth (17)
Eugene Fraise of Fort Madison (50)
Johnie Hammond of Ames (31)
Patricia Harper of Waterloo (13)
Wally E. Horn of Cedar Rapids (27)
John Judge of Albia (46)
Matt McCoy of Des Moines (34)
Mark Shearer of Washington (49)
Betty A. Soukup of New Hampton (15)
Elaine Szymoniak of Des Moines (36)
Paul Bell of Newton (57)
Michael Cataldo of Des Moines (68)
Kay Chapman of Cedar Rapids (53)
Frank Chiodo of Des Moines (67)
John Connors of Des Moines (69)
Minnette Doderer of Iowa City (45)
Bill Dotzler of Waterloo (26)
Mark Kuhn of Charles City (29)
Rick Larkin of Madison (99)
Dolores Mertz of Ottosen (15)
Norman Mundie of Fort Dodge (14)
Pat Murphy of Dubuque (36)
Dick Myers of Iowa City (49)
David Schrader of Monroe (90)
Don Shoultz of Waterloo (25)
Greg Stevens of Millford (7)
Todd Taylor of Cedar Rapids (54)
Roger Thomas of Elkader (32)
Wesley Whitead of Sioux City (1)
William Witt of Cedar Falls (23)
Unions: Iowa United Food and Commercial Workers Union (10/6/99), Iowa Carpenters Union (8/16/99), Iowa Postal Mailhandlers Union (8/16/99), AFSCME Iowa Council 61 (6/25/99), Iowa United Autoworkers
Richard Arnold of Russell (91)
Effie Lee Boggess of Clarinda (87) -fmrly Dole
Danny Carroll of Grinnell (58)
Galen Davis of Ottumwa (93)
Jack Drake of Lewis (81)
Teresa Garman of Ames (63)
Sandra Greiner of Keota (96)
Brad Hansen of Carter Lake (83)
Dave Heaton of Mt. Pleasant (97)
Clarence Hoffman of Charter Oak (12)
Danny Holmes of Walcott (40)
Hubert Houser of Carson (85)
Michael Jager of La Porte City (27)
Pat Shey of Cedar Rapids (52) -won Nov. 2, 1999 special election to repace Ron Corbett (who endorsed Alexander)
Cecelia Burnett of Ames (61)
Dennis Cohoon of Burlington (100)
Ro Foege of Mt. Vernon (50)
Keith Kreiman of Bloomfield (92)
Mary Mascher of Iowa City (46)
Dennis May of Kensett (20)
Steve Richardson of Indianola (89)
Steven Warnstadt of Sioux City (2)
Keith Weigel of New Hampton (30)
Philip Wise of Keokuk (98)
State Senators Yet to Endorse
Mary Lou Freeman of Alta (5) does not plan to endorse
John W. Jensen of Plainfield (11)
Mary Lundby of Marion (26) -fmrly Dole
Steve King of Kiron (6) -fmrly Quayle, does not plan to endorse
Andy McKean of Anamosa (28)
David Miller of Libertyville (47)
John Redwine of Sioux City (2)
Kitty Rehberg of Rowley (14) -fmrly Quayle
Neal Shuerer of Amana (30)
Kenneth Veenstra of Orange City (3) -fmrly Quayle
Michael Gronstal of Council Bluffs (42)
The Sioux City Journal's editorial board consists of Larry Myhre (editor), Karen Luken (managing editor), Bruce Miller (managing editor/living), Dave Dreeszen (business editor), Mike Gors (correspondent coordinator) and Glenn Olson (city editor). The paper endorsed Bush despite the fact that he did not stop in for an ed board meeting.
The Messenger's editorial board consists of Walter B. Stevens (editor emeritus), Larry D. Bushman (publisher) and Joseph Dill (editor). They arrived at the endorsement in a "fairly informal" process.
The annual salary for members
of the State House and State Senate is $20,757.81 in 1999, increasing to
$21,380.55 in 2000. In addition, state legislators receive an $86/day
per diem during the regular legislative session.